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Mexican Empire (1821-1823)

Last modified: 2016-04-23 by juan manuel gabino villascán
Keywords: mexico | evolution | eagle | nopal | crown | empire (first) | iturbide | first flag |
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[Mexican Empire (First) flag: Nov. 2, 1821-Apr. 14, 1823. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán] 4:7 [Unofficial proportions] [National flag and ensign] Reconstruction based upon written sources only [Variant - this flag is one of several which can be displayed] [Flag no longer in use]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002.
Flag based on written sources only [csm60].
Badge based on [wck95], [csm60], [ijb20] and [flr00].
Flag and coat of arms adopted: by Decree of November 2, 1821
Flag and coat of arms confirmed: by Decree of January 7, 1822
Flag and coat of arms abolished: by Decree of April 14, 1823.
Use on land: Civil, state and war flag
Use at sea: Civil, state and naval ensign

See:

Imperial flag and coat of arms

[Imperial greater arms. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]     [Imperial small arms. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]
Both images by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002
Badge based on [wck95], [csm60], [ijb20] and [flr00]

On October 7, 1821, the Regency, a provitional government body formed to chose the emperor who rule the newly independent nation, realized the Empire has no imperial coat of arms nor national seal, even the flag should be determined. It was voted for creating a commission made up by regency members Sota-Riva, Tagle, and Conde de Regla. Discussion about the coat of arms and flag took place on October 19, 1821. The first decree to establish the Imperial National flag dated on January 7, 1822 states:

"Article unique:(...) the national flag and flags of the army shall be tricolored, adopting forever the colors green, white and "encarnado" (flesh-colored [e.g. red]) arranged vertically, with the crowned eagle in the center of the white stripe, according the following design..."

Quted by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002.


On November 2, 1821, Don Agustin de Iturbide, as president of the provisional goverment composed by other 38 personalities, decreed: that the National Flag should contain vertical stripes in colours green, white and red, adding to the white centre a crowned eagle, resting on the legendary nopal (Nahoa). This flag was used in every ceremony during Iturbide’s Empire since his coronation at July 21, 1822.

By La Bandera Mexicana [website no lorger in service].
Translated by Jorge Candeias, 27 Oct 1997.



Imperial colours

[Anverse side of Imperial military flag (1821-1823). By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán] [Reverse side of Imperial military flag (1821-1823). By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]

Both images by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002
Based on [col90]

This is one digitalized example of a Mexican military flag preserved by the Museo Nacional de Historia in Mexico City with the crowned eagle looking to its left wing in both sides of the flag. Horizontal-colored flags were also flown only for military use. Let's recall that originally, the flag proposed by the Regencia was in horizontal stripes, but finally the verticall arrangement was adopted.
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002


1821 flag proposals

[Proposal for the Imperial Flag] [Reconstruction] | [Flag proposed in 1821]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, March 14, 2002.
Based on [col90] and [ban95]

It seems the original proposal of the Imperial flag was with horizontal stripes: red, over white over green. However, since on October 20, 1821, Mr. Tagle (a commision member appointed to chose the Imperial symbols) pointed out that: "The green-white-red flag's stripes should be place in a transverse way in order to give more field for drawing the Eagle" [ban95]. The commsion accepted the proposal and finally the colors of the flag were arranged vertically: green, white, red [ban95]. Mr. Alcócer (another symbols commisioner), also proposed, that the eagle should be painted alone; since it was firstly agreed that the eagle should be represented attacking a tiger. Mr.Alcócer's oppinion was accepted [ban95] and [flr00].
Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, May 20, 2002


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